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Land Leaders





Unit - The smallest element - a tank, infantry, motorized, mech.. etc.

Formation - All the units grouped under a single leader.

Stack - One or more formations located in the SAME province (zone).

In battle, a stack of formations is commanded by their most senior leader.

Div list - The list of divisons that appears in the combat window.

When you group your armies its essential that you understand that each leader has a

Command Penalty Capacity (CPC).

1. Command Penalty Capacity (i.e. the -75% penalty)


1.1 This is a parameter for each stack. It is worked out separately for each stack.

1.2 If the total number of units in the stack exceeds the Command Penalty

Capacity, then the excess units in that stack receive a -75% penalty.

1.3 For each attacking stack, it is the capacity of the most senior leader in

the stack.

- if the most senior leader is an FM, then it is 12

- if the most senior leader is an GEN, then it is 9

- if the most senior leader is an LT, then it is 3

- if the most senior leader is an MJ, then it is 1

1.4 For a defending stack it is the sum of all the leaders present in the stack.

1.5 Thus if we have 13 units in an attacking formation commanded by a FM

(display of 13/12), one unit will have a -75% penalty. If the units were defending

the display would also read 13/12. If we have 13 units units in a territory,

but 12 of them will be under a FM and the 13th will be under a LT and the stack was

attacking (from one territory) then the display would read 13/12 - the 13th unit

would be at -75%. If the same units were defending then the CPC will be 15

(FM 12 + LT 3 = display 13/15) thus no unit will get a -75% penalty, but ONLY if

they are defending.

1.6 The capacity may be doubled by an HQ adjacent or in the same province.

The HQ does not have to be present at the start of the combat - as soon as

the HQ becomes adjacent to or present at an existing combat, the combat eff

values alter accordingly.

- if the most senior leader is an FM, then it is self-doubled to 24

- if the most senior leader is an GEN, then it is self-doubled to 18

- if the most senior leader is an LT, then it is self-doubled to 6

- if the most senior leader is an MJ, then it is self-doubled to 2

1.7 Thus in the same situation, but with a HQ present as one of those 13 units, we

would have a CPC of 24 if all the units were under an FM, and a CPC of 30, if

one of those was commanded by a LT. No unit will get the -75% penalty.

1.8 The units receiving the penalty are the lowest ones in the formation list

for a stack.

1.9 There is a limit to the number of ATTACKERS in one stack - 24 per territory

(under an FM with a HQ present - 18 if the highest is a general with HQ and so on).

If there is no HQ in the area then the CPC will be max 12/FM, 9/G, 3LT & 1MJ. So

in the above example if 13 units (12 for FM and 1 LT) attacked from one province

with a HQ the display will read 13/24.

1.10 This means that if you attack with an FM+23 units from one direction, and an

FM+25 units from another direction, the combat screen will show 48/48 (if a HQ is

present/nearby province), but in fact one of your units will get a -75% penalty.

1.11 There is no limit to the amount of DEFENDERS in the stack as long as you have enough

command capacity to cover all the units.

1.12 There is no extra benefit for NOT useing the full CPC - i.e. placing 9 units under a

FM (9/12).

2. Div list sequence


2.1 For attacks with a stack, which formation is on top (i.e. listed first thus is

not eligilbe for the -75% if stack is overstacked) depends ONLY on which

formation was "on top" of the stack when command to attack was issued.

2.2 For a given formation, the sequence of unitS is the same as seen in the

tooltip when the cursor is rested over the units.

This is also the same as the sequence seen in the formation summary window by

clicking on the formation (only viewable prior to combat).

2.3 It is therefore perfectly possible for a unit in the middle of the div

list to get a -75% penalty if:

- Its stack is over capacity.

- Its stack happens to be towards the top of the div list.

Then the lowest unitS (i.e the ones in the lowest formationS) for

that stack will get the penalty, but other divs for other stackS will be

below it.

3. HQ bonus / effects


3.1 HQ units act the same as FM's in HOI1. Leaders in the same province or in an adjacent

one have a doubled CPC (as in par 1.5).

3.2 All units that have a HQ unit next to them or in the stack can get a bigger ESE bonus.

3.3 HQ do not have to be attached to formations to give bonuses. There presence in the

province or in an adjacent province is enough.

3.4 HQ need to be commanded by an FM or a GEN to double the CPC of neighbouring units.

3.5 It does not matter what leader (in terms of skills and traits)you put in charge of

the HQ - there are no extra bonuses to any of the other formations from the traits

or skills of the leader in charge of the HQ.

3.6 Multiple HQ's do not cause any extra bonuses.

3.7 Depending on the level HQ's - they do not suffer from being flanked (i.e. attacked

when attacking)*****

4. Skill bonuses


4.1 These may be granted by a leader to, and ONLY TO, the unitS in HIS formation.

4.2 For skill purposes the capacity of a leader is NOT doubled by the presence

of FMs, whether the FM is himself the leader, in the same stack, in the same

province, or adjacent.

4.3 If the number of unitS in a formation is <= capacity (undoubled) of the formation

leader, then all the unitS in that formation receive the skill bonus.

4.4 If the number of unitS in a formation > capacity (undoubled) of the formation

leader, NO unitS in that formation receive the skill bonus.

4.5 Where granted, the bonus is 5% for each skill level

4.6 It does not matter if the CPC of the STACK is exceeded as long as the CPC of the

leader is not. In such a case the last units in the display box will get the -75%

(however they will still get the skill and the trait bonus).

5. Who commands


5.1 The highest ranking leader commands.

5.2 Where there is more than one equal highest ranking leader, the leader shown

in command is the one whose divs are randomly highest (of the equal ranking

leaders) in the div list. See 2 for more detail on sequence.

5.3 It doesn't make any difference which of equal ranking leaders is in command:

- Command Capacity Penalty (the -75% one) is set by rank only, and

separately for each stack.

- Traits are passed by all leaders to unitS in their formation regardless of

who commands the battle.

- Skills are passed by all leaders whose formationS are smaller than their

capacity, regardless of who commands the battle.

5.4 Rank & skill also influence rate of aCPCumulation of experience.

- Normally leaders add 1 exp point for every x hours elapsed.

- You get the 1st point after x/2 hours, the 2nd and thereafter after every

x hours.

- FM's earn experience at the slowest rate, MJ at the fastest rate. However

this is also dependant on the current number of skill points. A GEN with a

skill of 2 will earn exp faster than a GEN with a skill of 4.

- As posted by [B]P3D[/B]:

[*]EXP gain depends on the intensity of combat, leaders with the same characteristics

can gain different amount of EXP in paralell combats- I didn't really bothered with it

[*]EXP is not affected by traits save the good Old Guard

[*]The promotion dates or the ideal rank in the leaderfiles also have no effect

[*]The only parameters effecting the rate of EXP growth are rank, skill and max skill level

The rate of XP growth is in arbitraty units

All Skill 0, MaxSkill 9

MjGen LtGen Gen FM

100 66 33 10

This was clear to me, the ratios are 1, 2/3, 1/3, and 1/10.

Other skill values provided the same results.

MjGen, Maxskill 9

Skill 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Gain 100 80 31 16 9 5 2 1 1 0

This puzzled me, I couldn't think of any simple function to fit it.

MjGen, Skill=0

Maxskill 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Gain 100 80 63 48 35 24 9 4 1

At least this was a clear square law, I dind't even had to make a log-log fit.

Looking at the previous data, I saw that 31~63/2, 16~48/4, 9~35/4, etc.

And this helped me to get the final equation, for [i]skill<=maxskill[/i]:

[i] Rate off EXP gain = (MaxSkill-Currentskill+1)^2/max(Currentskill,1)*RankFactor


6. Traits


6.1 These are granted by each leader to, and ONLY TO, the units in HIS formation.

6.2 If that leader has multiple traits, then all these traits are applied.

6.3 All the units in the formation receive the leader trait unless the formation

goes over the leaders UNDOUBLED CPC.

6.4 Trait bonuses:

Defensive Doctrine

Eff + 10% for defender.

Offensive Doctrine

Eff +10% for attacker.

Panzer Leader

Eff +10% for Armour/Mech,as both attacker and defender.

Logistic Wizard

Oil and supplies consumption -25% ******


Eff +10% for Mountain, Marine and Paratroopers.

Eff -5% for all other troops.


Removes all river crossing combat Eff effects (only).



Increases the chance of surprise. If the enemy unit is suprised it gets a -20%

efficiency modifier.

Fortress Buster

Reduces the efficiency of forts by 25%. Each full level of fort (land or sea)gives

the attacker a - 9 % efficiency modifier.

Old Guard


Winter Specialist

blizzard... unknown

snow... snow Eff +25%

frozen... frozen Eff +20%

Examples of how efficiency is calculated for traits and skill


If we have:

- stack 1, attacking from Province 1 in Direction 1

- FM, skill 3, with Offensive Doctrine and Panzer Leader, + 23 divs

- LG, skill 2, with Offensive Doctrine, + 2 divs

- stack 2, attacking fom province 2 in Direction 2

- G, skill 4, no Traits, + 5 divs

- MG, skill 1, no Traits, + 10 divs

Then there are 40 divs.

No HQ penalties apply, as there is an HQ present.

stack 1:

- Command Penalty:

- Capacity set by FM at 24 for this stack (with HQ).

- There are 25 units so 1 unit receives a -75% penalty.

- This will randomly be either the lowest of the FM divs, or the lowest

of the LG divs.

- Skill:

- No FM divs get a skill bonus as he has 23 divs and an undoubled

capacity of 12.

- Both the LG divs get a skill bonus 2x5 = 10%, because an LG has a

capacity of 3.

- Traits:

- None of the 23 of FM's divs get applicable bonuses for both his traits.

- +10% for Offensive Doctrine.

- +10% for any armoured/mech divs in his 23, for Panzer Leader.

- All 2 of LG's divs get bonuses for his one Trait.

stack 2:

- Command Penalty:

- Capacity set by G at 18 (9 for a General, doubled by a HQ in the same


- There are 15 divs in the stack, so no divs get the -75% penalty.

- Skill:

- All 5 of G's divs get a skill bonus of 4x5 = 20%, as his capacity is 9.

- None of MG's divs get a skill bonus, as his capacity is 1.

- Traits:

- None apply

To calculate the efficiency we always start from the base of 100. We then multiply by

all the modifiers if the following way:


In the above example we have

100% base attack efficiency:

*1.1 - offensive leader

*1.0005 - exp

*1.04 - ESE

*0.9 - forest

*0.75 - frozen

*1.1 - leadership

= 84.9844 %

100% base defence efficiency

*1.1 - offensive leader

*1.0005 - exp

*1.04 - ESE

*0.9 - forest

*1.1 - leadership

= 113.82 %

So it seems with defence efficiency some modifiers do not have any effect. These are:

- frozen,

- night,

Other modifiers


Combined Arms

when units number <= CPC(not double),

and (less than 100% and 30% or more) is Hard Units(arm mech...)...

attacker: Eff+5%

defender: Eff+15%


Eff-10% when simultaneously attacked from three directions. Furthermore, it is

Eff-10% for every extra direction added.

No Retreat Possible

Eff-10% when attacked in a province that is surrounded. Only applicable to the


Lack of Supply

Eff-20%, when lack of Supply.

Fuel is not related to this Eff.

River crossing, weather and terrain modifiers

These can be found on the 6th page of the statistics screen.

Landing troops (shore)

- 10% for each unit above the 3rd

Multiple combat modifier (flanked - attacked when attacking)

- 50% Multiple Combat


- Eff-15% if the formation is paradropping to enemy province.


- dissent */2 %


+ experience of unit * /2 %



When trying to understand the Combat Eff you see, there are a variety of

factors you need to consider in addition to leaders:

1. Weather

2. Terrain

3. Ministers ******

- Several minister types affect Eff.

- In general effects are shown on the minister screen.

- However 'Armoured Spearhead Doctrine' (which is a Chief of Army type):

- Gives +10% eff to armour/mech (whether as attacker or defender)

- The screen text does not mention this.

4. Difficulty



ORGANISATION 30 15 0 -15 -30

COMBAT 10 5 0 -5 -10

MOVE_SPEED 10 5 0 -5 -10

INTELLIGENCE 10 5 0 -5 -10

5. Dug-in

- Stationary troops dig in automatically.

- Level increases by 1 per day, to a max of 20.

- DEfending troops will NOT dig in during a battle.

- Each level gives eff +1%

6. Techs ******

- There are various techs that influence Combat Eff.

- The 'modifiers' section of your save file summarises these for

each troop type.



- Combat begins after the first hr. You can stop combat at any time. After

the 1 st hr of combat breaking off an attack will cause that the formation,

will not be able to engange / move for the next 24hrs.

- If a unit is able to defend itself it has a 80% chance to avoid each hit.

If no defences are left it has a 60% chance to avoid each hit.

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1 Comment

Nov 12, 2023

Engineer just reduces the penalty for crossing the river by 20.

If the penalty, for example, is -40, then engineer will reduce it to -20. Nick

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